Small Scale Sugar Processing Machines:

This set of machineries processes sugarcane into brown sugar and liquid sugar as follows:

  1. Cane Cutter: The Cane Cutter cuts harvested sugarcanes into small fragments to enable them to be worked upon by the juice expeller.

    Description: Two types are available as follows:

    • Horizontal model: This is made up of an horizontal cutting blade that rotates within a solid upper concave and lower sieve constructed with 10mm diameter rod. A grasshopper conveyor is incorporated directly below the sieve to receive fragmented canes and transport them down to the Cane juice expeller.

      Performance indices and Specifications:

      • Capacity = 10,000kg per day
      • Cane cutting efficiency = 100%
      • Cane fragments delivery efficiency = 98%
      • Speed of cutting blades = 3,000rpm
      • Reciprocatory speed of cane conveyor =0.25m/sec
      • No. of cutting knives = 75
      • Power requirement (electric motor) = 10HP

      Features:

      • Interchangeable sieve to vary cane fragments sizes
      • Cane cutting and conveying assemblies made of stainless materials
    • Vertical model: This is made up of a single vertical rotating blade enclosed in cylinder. Canes are fed vertically through the hopper in a vertical position for the blade to cut them into small fragments. A reciprocatory conveyor made of stainless tray transports incorporated at bellow the cutter conveys canes to the expeller.

      Performance indices and Specifications:

      • Capacity = 10,000kg per day
      • Cane cutting efficiency = 100%
      • Cane fragments delivery efficiency = 98%
      • Speed of cutting blades = 2,000rpm
      • Reciprocatory speed of cane conveyor =0.25m/sec
      • No. of cutting knives = 1
      • Power requirement (electric motor) = 7. 5HP

      Features:

      • Simplicity in design and mode of operation
      • Cane conveying assemblies made of stainless materials


  2. Cane juice expeller: The cane expeller extracts juice from sugarcane

    Description: The machine is made up of a worm screw having one press point that rotates in a cage barrel constructed with mild steel square rods. An oil spout and cake collector are fitted at the bottom and posterior end of the machine. Fragmented sugarcanes are fed into the machine by gravity from the cane cutter through a hopper.

    Features and Specifications:

    • Capacity = 5,000kg per day
    • Cane juice extraction efficiency = 97%
    • Baggasse dryness = 98%
    • Immediate baggasse temperature after juice extraction = 55- 600C
    • Revolution per minute of worm = 60 rpm
    • Power requirement (electric motor) = 25HP

    Features:

    • Incorporation of adjustable mechanism to extract maximum juice canes
    • Expression of juice in one pass instead of two or more passes
    • Continuity in operation due to automatic feed from the cane cutter
    • Immediate application of baggasse as heat energy in boiling of juice due to high baggasse dryness


  3. Juice evaporation system: This equipment concentrates cane juice to increase the brix of the juice from about 200 to 800 by boiling in open stainless pans.

    Description: This system is made up of a set of three (3) stainless pans placed over underground tunnel which serves as a firing chamber for the system. The baggasse that come out of the juice extractor as wastes are utilized as source of heat. The system is segmented into two sections: firing and boiling areas by a wall to increase the velocity of the air draft and directing it to the firing chamber. A chimney is also incorporated at the anterior end of the system in order to flue gas to exit thereby allowing fresh oxygenated air to enter the combustion chamber to ensure continuity in burning.

    Performance indices and specifications :

    • Capacity = 450 litres per day
    • Cane juice evaporation time:
      First pan = 90 mins
      Second pan = 50 mins
      Third pan = 30 mins
    • Initial brix of juice = 18 - 220
    • Final brix of juice = 78 - 800

    Features:

    • Use of stainless pans for boiling the juice
    • Direct application of baggase for firing without extra drying requirement
    • Elimination of manual feeding of boiling pans by the use pipes to convey juice from cane juice expeller to evaporation the system.


  4. Crystallizer: The crystallizer enhances the formation of sugar crystal through a natural cooling process of the concentrated syrup.

    Description: This equipment is a U-shape trough which has an horizontal stirrer that agitates the concentrated syrup received from the Open Pan Evaporation System. An electric motor attached to a gearbox supplies power to the stirrer. Cooling of the hot concentrated syrup is achieved the exchange of heat between the syrup and the ambient environment.

    Performance indices and specifications :

    • Capacity = 2,000 litres per day
    • Crystallization efficiency = 90%
    • Speed of stirring blade = 2.0 rpm
    • Mass of Sugar formed from 1,000 litres of syrup = 750 kg
    • Volume of molasses from 1,000 litres of syrup = 373 litres
    • Complete crystallization time = 52hrs
    • Average crystal size = 0.90 mm
    • Power requirement (electric motor) = 7. 5HP

    Features:

    • Use of stainless materials for the U shape trough and the stirer
    • Smoothness in operation


  5. Centrifuge: The centrifuge separates sugar crystal (solid) from the liquid fraction (molasses) of the crystallized syrup known as the massercuit.

    Description: This is a machine consists essentially of an inner perforated basket having coarse and fine screens attached to the walls that rotates within another solid basket. A shaft suspended vertically by two bearings holds the basket to spin at the required speed. A speed braking system is also incorporated at the top of the shaft and inner basket assembly to stop the rotation of the basket at desired time after a cycle of separation operation to enable packing of the crystal from the inner basket.

    Performance indices and specifications :

    • Capacity i.e Mass of sugar crystal = 500 kg per day
    • Centrifugation efficiency = 95%
    • Speed of Centrifuge = 1,500 rpm
    • Duration of spinning of basket operation = 1.5 mins
    • Sugar discharge time = 3 mins
    • Total time for one cycle of operation = 5 mins
    • Power requirement - electric motor = 7. 5 HP

    Features:

    • Use of copper Sieves and stainless materials for the inner basket
    • Stability of machine at the highest speed.


  6. Rotary Dryer : This machine dries the sugar crystal by extracting the moisture from the wet sugar after centrifugation.

    Description: It is made up of a rotary drum having louvers which is suspended on a frame. The drum is lined internally with stainless sheet and insulated with rock-wool insulator. Power is supplied to the drum for rotation by an electric motor and gear box while another electric motor actuates a fan at the rear of the machine which blows ambient air into the drum, thereby transporting the moisture out of the dryer. A discharge outlet at the front of the dryer allows for exit of the dried sugar.

    Performance indices and specifications :

    • Capacity i.e Mass of sugar crystal = 1000 per day
    • Drying efficiency = 95 %
    • Sugar granulation efficiency = 98 %
    • Speed of dryer = 10rpm
    • Duration to dry one batch (250kg) of sugar = 45 mins
    • Sugar discharge time = 5 mins
    • Power requirement for rotary drum - electric motor = 7. 5HP
    • Power requirement for blower (HP) = 0.75HP
    • Power of electric heaters (watts) = 6,000 watts

    Features:

    • Use of stainless materials for the inner drum
    • Self discharging capability of dryer